📮SCIENCE OF HADEES kise kahte hai…?

📮SCIENCE OF HADEES  kise kahte hai…?

🍂🍃Bismillahhirrahmanirraheem🍃🍂

Jawab :

💠‘Jarh wa Taadil’ ke ILM ko Science of Hadees kahte hai.

Kaun Kahte hai ke ILM-e- Hadees mahefuz nahi hai. Is Dars batayenge ke ILM-e- Hadees par kitna kaam huwa hai.

ILM-e-HADEES me istemaal kiye jaane wale ahem nukto ki  DEFITNITIONS :

💠💠 “HADEES” ka Dictionary Meaning ❓

Arabi lugat (dictionary) me lafz ‘HADEES” ka maayna (matlab) hota hai “Baatchit”, “khabar”, “Bayaan” ya “Jadid (New)”.

💠💠HADEES ka SHARAI Meaning ❓

🔹 “Islami Shariyat” ke pasomanzar (context) me, Ulama-e-Muhaddisin ne apne kitabo me Hadees ki tarif is tarah ki hai………..

1⃣  Har wo Farmaan (hukm),

2⃣  Har wo Amal,

3⃣  Har wo Taqrir

4⃣  Har wo seerat,

jiski “NISBAT (connection)” Pyare Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam ki taraf ki jaaye usko “HADEES” kaha jata hai.

🔻”Taqrir” yaani kisi Sahabi ne apke samne koi kaam ya amal kiya aur aap uspar khamosh rahe. Nabi ki khamushi bhi Nabi ki razamandi samji jaati hai warna agar wo kaam ya amal galat hota to Nabi “mana” farmate ya “rokte”.

———————————————————

ℹJo “NISBAT” Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam ki taraf ki jaarahi hai agar wo Nisbat “Sahih” nikal aaye hai to Hadees SAHIH ban jaati hai warna Hadees ZAEEF ya MAWZU ban jaati hai.

Isi “NISBAT” k0 “SANAD” kaha jata hai. Agar “SANAD”  me saare ke saare RAAWI (bayaan karne wale) sahih Nikal aaye to HADEES sahih ban aati hai warna Hadees Zaeef ya Mawzu (man-ghadat) ban jaati hai.

💕’Jarh wa Taadeel’ kise Kahte hai…?

Hadees ke Raavi ko “Gair Motbar (Unauthentic or Weak)” ya “Motbar (Authentic or Strong)” karar dene ke ILM ko ”Jarh wa Taa’deel” kahte hai.

🌺

Dekhiye Pyare Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam ke ZAMAANE  me “Hadees ko sirf “HADEES hi kaha jata tha aur na uske upar koi LABEL lagya jata tha aur na bayan karne wale se uski SANAD pucchi jaati thi kyun ke saare LOG SACHHE the aur koi FIRKA BANDI bhi nahi thi isliye us waqt in LABELS ki zarurat nahi thi.

🌺

Lekin jab bad me logo ne “NAYE AQEEDE” aur  HADEESO me apne khud sakta baato ki MILAAWAT  karna shuru ki to us waqt ke Ahle Haqq Ulema ne usko LABEL diya take bhola bhala Musalman Nabi ke NAAM par JHOOTI  HADEESE na le.

Yeh us waqt ke Ulema ne iski zarurat mahesus ki thi aur aaj bhi is LABEL ki zarurat hai.

Jis tarhaa aaj MARKET me “ASLI GHEE” ka LABEL laga kar becha jata hai kyunke MARKET me “NAKALI GHEE” bhi maujud hai taake logo ko aasani se firk samaj me aajaye.

✔MATN :

MATN se muraad wah Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam ki ASSAL BAAT hai jo SANAD ke baad bayan ki jaati hai.

Kuch Hadees ki Kitaaben aisi hai jinme sirf MATAN hota hai, lekin ye kitaben Hadees ki asaal kitaben hahi hoti, balke logon ki aasani ke liye likhi gayi hai, jaise ‘Mishqaat’.

Ham log bhi aam taur par SANAD ko chhod kar direct MATAN ko bayan karte hai.

✔SANAD :

Hadees ki kitabon me MATN bayan karne se pahle riwayat karne waalon ke naamo ke silsile ko “sanad” kahte hai.

Hadees ki SANAD bahut hi ahem hoti hai aur isko mahefuz rakhna Hadees ke sahet ke liye  bahut zaruri hai warna Nabi ke naam par koi bhi jhoot bolega.

SANAD wah tareeqa (Science of Hadees) hai kisi aur dharm me nahi paaya jaata.

HADEES PAR LAGAYE GAYE KUCHH  AHEM “LABELS” :

🔺   SAHIH :

Hadees Sahih hone ke liye in sharton ka hona laazmi hai..

1.      iske bayan karne waale “aadil” yani uska charactor bharose ke qaabil ho.

2.      unki dimaagi yad’daash mazboot ho, ya phir jo kah rahe ho wah likha huwa ho.

3.      uski sanad(chain of narrators)  mutassil (continue or without break) ho, yani har raawi (bayan karne waala) ne wah hadith apne ustaad se khud suni ho.

4.      usme koi ‘shaaz’(dusare sahih se takraati na ho) baat na batayi gayi ho.

5.      usme kisi ki tarah ki koi ‘illat (chhupi hui kamzori)’ na Paayi jaati ho.

🔺   HASAN :

Yah Zaeef Hadees ki ek kism hai.

Yah wah Hadees hai jisme Sahih Hadees ki saari shartein paayi jaati ho lekin sirf raawi ki dimagi taqat kuch kamzor ho, lekin itni bhi na ho ki wah ”zaeef” ban jaaye.

HASAN Hadees Amal ke kabil hoti hai.

🔺      ZAEEF :

Yah wah Hadees hai jisme…

1.      Hadees ki sanad(chain of narrators) mutassil na (discontinue) ho yani bich me kahi na kahi Hadees ki sanad tuti hui ho.

2.      Koi ek Raavi ya har Raavi jhoot bolne me mashoor ho.

3.      Raavi Biddati ho aur apne Biddat ke support me koi Hadees bayan karta ho.

4.      Raavi ki dimaagi yad’daash bahot hi kamzor ho.

5.      Raavi Hadees lene me aur bayan karne me la’parwahi aur kotahi barat’ta ho.

6.      Raavi Hadees ghadne me mashoor ho.

🔺   ZAEEF ZIDDAN :

Jiski sanad ka koi raawi bahut zyada kamzor ho lekin jhoota naa ho.

🔺 MAWZOO (Man ghadant):

Yah ‘Man-ghadat Hadees’ hoti hai jo Nabi ke naam par Ghadi gayee ho.
Haqeeqat me yah Hadees hi nahi hoti kyunki yah hadees ki wah kism hai jisko kisi raawi ne apni taraf se ghadkar Nabi sallallaho alaihi wasallam ki taraf mansoob kar diya lekin   ‘MAWDOO’ ko parakh ne ke liye bahut zyada koshih karna padta isliye Muhaddiseeno ne iske mutallik bahut sari kitaaben likhi aur jahan jahan MAWDOO Hadeese paayi unko wajeh kar diya taake Islam me koi apni taraf se kuch daakhil na kar sake, isliye aisi hadeese bahut saare Hadees ki Kitaabon me to daakhil ho gayi, lekin Muhaddiseeno ne isko waajeh kar diya.

🔻     MUTAWATIR :

Yeh Sahih Hadees ki ek kism hai.

Yah Hadees ki wah kism hai jisko bayan karne waale itne zyada ho ki unka jhoot bolna na-mumkin ho jaaye.

🔻   ILLAT :

Hadees ke SANAD wa MATAN me chhupi hui kamzori ko ILLAT kahte hai jo aam taur par aam admi ko na dikhayi degi lekin Hadees ka maheer usko pakad sakta ho.

‘ILLAT’ ke wajah se Hadees zaeef ho jaati hai.

ILLAT ko parakhne ke liye bahut zyada Hadees ke Science (Jarh wa Taa’deel) ki zarurat padhti hai.
ILLAT ko parakhne waale mashoor Muhaddithon me Imam Bukhari rh, Imam Daar e Kutni rh aur Imam Baihaqi rh khaas hai.

🔻    MAHFOOZ :

Yah Sahih Hadees ki ek kism hai.

Yah wah hadees hai jo kisi kam aadil raawi ke khilaaf zyada aadil raawi ke zariye bayan ki jaati hai, zyada adl waale raawi ki hadith ko MAHFOOZ kahte hai aur is tarah ki hades ke mutabik amal karna zaroori hai.
Aur kam adl waale raawi ki Hadees ko SHAAZ kahte hai
Aadil raawi usko kahte hai jiska character bharose ke qaabil ho.

🔻    SHAAZ :

Yeh wah Hadees hai jo kisi zyada aadil raawi ke khilaaf kisi kam adl waale raawi ke zariye bayan ki gayi ho us Hadees ko SHAAZ kahelati hai.

SHAAZ  Hadees par  AMAL NAHI kiya jayega.

🔻     MAA’RUF :

Yah Sahih Hadees ki ek kism hai.

jiska raawi aadil hota hai lekin koi ‘zaeef’ raawi uske mukhaalif (opposite) Hadees bayan kare to aadil raawi ki hadees ko ‘MAA’RUF’ kahte hai. MAA’RUF Hadees par amal karna lazim hai.

aur ‘zaeef’ raawi ki hadith ko MUNKAR kahte hai. MUNKAR Hadees par  AMAL NAHI kiya jayega.

🔻    MUNKAR :

Yah Zaeef Hadees ki ek qism hai.

jiska raawi ‘Zaeef’ bhi ho aur kisi aadil raawi ke khilaaf me Hadees bayaan karta ho.

MUNKAR Hadees par  AMAL NAHI kiya jayega.

🔻    MAR’FU :

MAR’FU Hadees Sahih bhi ho sakti hai aur zaeef bhi.
Yah wah Hadees hai jisko Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam se mansoob kiya jaaye, yah sahih bhi ho sakti hai aur zaeef bhi.
Agar uski sanad ya matan me koi illat nahi hai to Sahih hogi aur agar koi illat paayi gayi to zaeef hogi.
Agar MAR’FU Hadees Sahih nikali to is par amal karna zaruri hai.

🔻  MUNQA’TA :

Yah Zaeef Hadees ki ek kism hai.

Yah Hadees ki wah qism hai jiski sanad me koi raawi aisa mil jaaye jisne apne ustad se Hadees na suni ho, to usko muntaqa kahte hai yani matlab yah hai ke sanad beech me se kat gayi ho, MUNQA’TA Hadees bhi zaeef hadees ki qism me se hi hai kyunki Hadees ke sahih hone ke liye zaroori hai uski SANAD mutassil ho.

🔻  MURSAL :

Yah wo Hadees hai jisme kisi Taabiee kisi Sahabi se riwayat na karte huye direct Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam se Hadees bayan ki ho jabki wah Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam se milaa hi na ho, is tarah ki Hadees ko MURSAL kaha jaayega.

Jaise ‘Hasan Basri rh ya Taa’us rh‘ agar kahen ki Nabi sallallahu alaihi wasallam ne fala fala farmaya.

Is tarah ki Hadees ko MURSAL isliye kaha jata hai kyunki Hasan Basri rh Taabiee the aur Hadees bayaan karne me kisi Sahabi ka zikr nahi nahi kiya jab ki Hadees ko un tak pahunchaane me koi na koi Sahabi zaroor honge.
Salaf ke paas MURSAL Hadees par amal nahi kiya jayega lekin kuchh aise 2-3 khas Tabiee hai unki MURSAL riwayat bhi sahih mani jaati hai kyunke wo sirf Sahaba se hi ilm hasil karte the.

✅⭕✔HADEES KE BAARE ME AUR KUCHH MALU’MAT:

🔺  JAAM’I :

Hadees ki us kitab ko kahte hai  jisme..
1.      ahkaam ke saath saath,
2.      Imaan,
3.      Fitan (Fitne)
4.      Tafsir

bayan ki jaaye.
Misal ke taur par : Jaam’i Sahih Bukhari, Jaami Sahih Muslim.

🔺     SUNAN :

SUNNAT ke jama (plural form) ko SUNAN kaha jata hai.
Hadees ki wah kitab jo ahkaam aur deen ke huqm ke base par likhi gayi ho.
Misal ke taur par : Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan Nisai, Sunan Tirmizi, Sunan Ibne Maaja.

🔺     TABIEE :
Jo Shakhs kisi Sahabi se mila ho aur un se Hadeeso ka ilm haasil kiya ho use Taabiee kahte hai.

🔺    SHEIKH-UL-ISLAM :
Yah un expert Ulema kos laqab diya jata hai jo bahut kam logon ko milta hai kyunki yah laqab un logon ke liye istemal ki jaati hai jo Hadees aur Fiqah me bahut gahera ilm rakhte ho.
Misal ke taur par : Ibne Taimiyya rh.

Wallahu Aalam BisSawaab…

(Yeh Dars Abu Zaid Zameer ke Video Series “Hadees ke baaz Usool ” se liye gaya. Puri video series YouTube par Maujud hai.)

⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐
📎Share

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: